Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Former President of India
  Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam    
 
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INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF THE INDO- US UNIVERSITIES EDUSAT NETWORK (THROUGH EDUSAT AND TELE-EDUCATION DELIVERY SYSTEM - VIRTUAL TELE-ED AT RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN, NEW DELHI
 
08-12-2005 : New delhi
 
Research - Teaching - Research: Societal Transformation

I am indeed delighted to be with you in the inauguration of the Indo-US Universities EDUSAT Network. It is an important occasion of the combined gathering of the members from the Indian Space Research Organisation, Department of Science and Technology, Amrita Vishva Vidyapeetham, five universities of USA, Microsoft Corporation, QUALCOMM Inc. and Cadence Design Systems Inc. My greetings to the Vice-chancellors of the Universities, Directors of the institutions, faculty members, academicians, corporate leaders, government participants and other distinguished invitees. Today is an important day in the annals of Indo-US academic cooperation. Indian and American Universities have decided to work together using EDUSAT connectivity and create a new wave of synergy amongst our educational institutions. It is indeed a renewal programme of long standing scientific cooperation between our two countries. It has to be a win-win situation for both our nations. This cooperation indeed should result in the virtual university system. Fortunately, ICT is a distance eliminator and facilitator of bringing together scientific and technological minds. I am sure this meet of academic minds of our both countries will further enhance the excellence in research?teaching-research cycle leading to Societal Transformation.

As you are aware, the prosperous and developed India is the national goal of our country. Developed India has to be powered by the economic development; the economic development in turn is powered by competitiveness. The competitiveness is powered by knowledge power. Knowledge power is powered by innovation. Innovation is powered by Science and Technology and technology is powered by resource investment. Let me now discuss with you about the societal transformation.

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Societal transformation

The whole purpose of education in a country like India is to develop and enhance the potential of our human resource and progressively transform it into a knowledge society. The knowledge society will be a society producing products and services that are rich in both explicit and tacit knowledge, thus creating value added products. The real capital of this knowledge society will be its knowledge workers. The society will be highly networked to create knowledge intensive environment along with enabling process to efficiently create, share, use and protect knowledge. Our education system should re-align itself at the earliest to meet the needs of the present day challenges and be fully geared to participate in the societal transformation. The networking of universities and institutions through EDUSAT is the first step towards creating the universities that could meet the demands of the knowledge era ? an era that was born out of convergence of technologies and it is only natural that the human minds should also converge in the knowledge era.

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Characteristics of the Knowledge economy

I was studying different dimensions of knowledge society how will it be different from the industrial Economy. In the knowledge economy the objective of a society changes from fulfilling the basic needs of all round development to empowerment. The education system instead of going by text book teaching will be promoted by creative, interactive self learning ? formal and informal with focus on values, merit and quality. The workers instead of being skilled or semi-skilled will be knowledgeable self empowered flexibly skilled. The type of work instead of being structured and hardware driven will be less structured and software driven. Management style will be delegative rather than being directive. Impact on environment and ecology will be strikingly less compared to industrial economy. Finally, the economy will be knowledge driven and not industry driven. Let me discuss with an example, how the knowledge connectivity benefits the society.

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The benefits of knowledge connectivity

The knowledge connectivity is essential for networking and providing a seamless access between the knowledge creator that is the Universities and institutions, the R & D institutions that convert knowledge into products and the knowledge consumer that is the industry and people. As an example, now let us take Jatropha plantation to generation of bio-fuel. The Jatropha plantation technology and methods is provided to the farmers by the agricultural university. The R & D institutions work on converting Jatropha seeds into bio-fuel and by-products. A rural small scale industry will establish an enterprise for producing bio-fuel and marketing it. The rural development and agricultural ministry provide the policy framework for pricing and use of bio-fuel. Also, there is a need for the University to work on the development of a variety of hybrid seeds for increasing the productivity of oil from the seeds. Thus we can see there is a close cycle between the farmer, researcher, educational institutions, industry and the user requiring variety of knowledge input at different stages which can be made available effectively only if all these institutions are brought under knowledge grid and a common communication protocol with high speed access is made available to them. Connectivity is the key to success of our development programmes. Now I would like to mention some of the research and development areas of national and international importance.

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Possible R&D Areas for the Universities towards National Development

Some of the major areas where our Universities can contribute are the following:

1. Energy Sector on solar energy, bio-fuel and Thorium (Nuclear Reactor) are the important areas of research.

2. Second green revolution for increasing the food grains output from the existing 200 millions tonnes per annum to 400 million tonnes with reduced availability of land, reduced availability of water and reduced farm work force and provision of potable safe drinking water to all the citizens.

3. Infrastructure: Energy efficient green habitat for the citizens through Green Building concept.

4. ICT: Enhancing our ICT export market through the development of knowledge products and develop nano-technology based system for societal transformation.

5. Nano Science and Technology: Some of the research areas from the nano science and technology leads to energy storage, production and conversion, enhancing agricultural productivity, water treatment, disease diagnosis and screening, drug delivery system, food preservation and storage, air pollution control and ventilation, construction, health monitoring and vector / pest destruction and control.

I have studied the report ?Nano technology Market and Company Report ?Finding Hidden Pearls? and it is available in Rashtrapati Bhavan digital library, I would like refer one page for your reference. Now you look at the digital library page appearing in your screens. Look at the page ?Possible Future Products and Time Range? it talks about the relevance of Nano technology for selected industrial areas such as Materials, Electronics, Biotechnology, Medicine, Environment, Energy and Transport.

This report deals with the nano science and technology research and development, market demand and the projection. This report will be of help to the research and also industrial communities to channelize their efforts in a right direction.

6. Computer Aided Design and Engineering: In today?s world, Computer Aided Design and Engineering are the backbone of any new product development. Even product improvement needs number of Computer Aided tool set. In India, the Light Combat Aircraft Programme pioneered application and even development of Computer aided design and engineering tools. These tools and techniques have helped in realizing an optimum design and enabled manufacture and assembly of complex components both metallic and composites for LCA. The design process and product development experience has to be further expanded by the manufacturing industry.

7. Virtual Reality: Amongst a host of computer aided engineering tools that were developed as part of LCA project, the prominent one was ?Virtual Reality?. In this technology, 3-D models of all the components are developed using CAD tools, the models are assembled using VR tools. Using these VR tools, the assembly procedures are checked, assembly jigs and fixtures are defined. Also the step by step procedure for accessibility and maintainability are also tested and optimized. Using VR tools, digital prototypes of LCA were made on workstations and powerful mainframe computers. Assembly and maintenance aspects were studied on these computer models. Using VR and computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD), flow visualization was done, kinematics of sub-systems such as landing gear were studied both in static and dynamic conditions simulating fluid flow and aerodynamic loads. Using gloves and visual devices, accessibility and maintenance aspects were studied and were demonstrated to the customer much before the aircraft was ready. This virtual reality experience will enable the reduction of building prototypes and ensure design to cost.

8. Autolay Software and Design: Another important contribution of LCA programme was development of computer aided design, analysis and manufacturing of advanced composite parts. The ?AUTOLAY? software developed by ADA is the first software available, which can be applied commencing from conceptual design, detailed design analysis, manufacturing and quality control. This software has been used extensively by Airbus industries in the design of A-380 aircraft the largest passenger aircraft of the world. ?AUTOLAY? has also been bought by Companies such as Boeing, Antonov Design Bureau, submarine and racing car industry. During the period 1987-2000, LCA programme transformed itself into an exporter of software for composite parts from a CAD software importer. This Autolay software since has been validated and has a potential for use as a design bed for the newer aerospace and commercial systems.

9. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): with these tools it is possible to analyze the flow not only Subsonic Mach numbers but also Supersonic Mach numbers. This task further will lead to the use of Grid computation.

10. Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) ? 5 axis NC programming, sheet metal forming, composite parts lay up, computer aided process planning. Computational electro magnetic ? enabled estimation of radar cross section of full aircraft and a host of other problems such as electro magnetic interference, optimal location of antennas etc. Universities can find innovative applications in the precision manufacturing sector.

11. Earth Quake Forecasting: In many places in our planet, we experience severe earthquakes resulting in loss of life, loss of wealth and in some cases it destroys the decades of progress made by the country and its valuable civilizational heritage. India has earthquake problems periodically in certain regions. Recently, in our state of Jammu and Kashmir and the neighbouring country, there was an earth quake. US, Japan, Turkey, Iran and many other countries also suffer due to earthquakes. It is essential to forecast the earthquake using multiple parameters using precursors such as pre-shock conditions, electromagnetic phenomena prior to final rupture and Atmospheric/ ionospheric anomalies. This is a challenging research task for the international scientific and engineering community.

So far I have discussed some of the possible research areas in the field of science and engineering. I suggest evolution of a common mission between the participating universities and the corporate to transform the R&D Efforts into products. Now I would like to discuss about the need creating the virtual university.

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Virtual University

The Association of Indo-US universities should lead to a creation of a virtual university through networking which you have already started. You have to only position the infrastructure and the modalities in place so that you can become an operational international virtual university with several years of accumulated academic and research strength of the participating universities.

In the world which is shrinking to become a global village, it is also important to produce students who ultimately become the knowledge workers in our economy to be global citizens. In this regard, at least to start with we must be able to offer, courses of predictable standards across the universities. A student should be able to attend courses of his or her choice without geographical constraints. The day when all our universities begin to offer this flexibility and assure constant and consistent high quality, this virtual university could proclaim to be the knowledge reservoir.

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A model Virtual University

At Rashtrapati Bhavan, I meet many experts from all over the world and from India, who have made the virtual universities of very high quality. At the same time, I also see in some of them a myth that many in the educational segment have started to have a wrong notion that anything connected to the web is a Virtual University. There must be a model code of evaluation and accreditation of quality Virtual Universities in the country and any impersonator must be weeded out immediately. For a nation, that has grown from maintaining quality in class room based education to distance education, this is a natural progression.

A model Virtual University, which can be emulated by others, should have some of the following characteristics:

a) It should have a framework to identify experts of national/international eminence in specialized areas and interweave the lectures to form a common curriculum. Indo-US Universities programme of lecture series from the Indian and US professors through EDUSAT at Amrita is the right step in this direction.

b) It should be able to coordinate, organize, schedule and broadcast the lectures of specialists.

c) It should record the live transmission of the lecture with interaction details in a data bank for easy access by participants for review learning.

d) It should provide a common data exchange format and a common look and feel for all of the lectures - be it live or archived.

e) Digitize all the university libraries and make it available for seamless access by all the universities.

f) Enable a digital collaboration among the students and faculties of the three universities and also from outside universities for knowledge sharing, knowledge dissemination and expansion.

g) The universities need to become teacher assisted, technology enhanced and learner centric.

h) They should have ?an always on connectivity? and must be able to provide bandwidth on demand and meet even the high bandwidth demands of immersive learning and remote experimentation using high precision expensive instruments.

I am sure this collaboration between Indian and US Universities would lead to the creation of the high quality Virtual University that will attract the International best of talents and produce borderless knowledge workers who will strive to make the world a much better place to live. The Virtual University should graduate into a modern Nalanda and attract students from all over the world ? a true global village producing global citizens with borderless talents, ethics and ethos. This virtual university needs the knowledge Grid to enrich the research potential.

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Knowledge GRID

The three phases of learning are the lectures, library and laboratories. They require increasing bandwidth from a few 100?s of kilobytes for the lectures to a few megabytes for the formal digital libraries and the informal world of knowledge from the Internet, to gigabits of connectivity for remote laboratories in the world of high precision science and engineering. As the bandwidth becomes cheaper and available in abundance, universities, institutions should be able to run remote instruments and facilities as complex as NMR to Wind tunnels and the schools can have their virtual laboratories connected with the R&D institutions. This will ultimately provide equitable access to the entire education system beyond just the lectures and the lecturers. Thus the bandwidth is the demolisher of imbalances and a great leveler in the knowledge society. At the same time, content generation is essential need for enriching the education.

It is important to connect the institutions and universities using high bandwidth connectivity because, during the lectures, the teachers has to push the lessons, internet reference, pages from the text books and multimedia based animated scenes, videos and audio to a live virtual class room. Many nations have moved to a fast internet2 high bandwidth applications. The time has come for our country to make the high bandwidth available for the nation including the teaching institutions.

What the prestigious universities of India and US have started should soon spread like a wildfire but with passion and engulf the entire education system both vertically and horizontally, starting from kindergarten to remote research and spreading across multiple disciplines without any concern for geographical location or the time. This has been the motivation for the nation?s programmes on knowledge grid which will now expand to international knowledge grid. Promoting excellence in the education system will need creation of world class educational institutions. This will involve formulation of innovative methods by which information and knowledge are accessed fast for meeting the demands of national challenges pertinent to your academic and research and development activities.

I have discussed in detail about the connectivity for billion people in my address to the Conference of URSI recently. I am now pushing the website for your reference.

We have rich knowledge institutions but what we have to add is connectivity. This connectivity today technologically is possible but would need creation of high band width reliable network infrastructure to the extent of minimum 10 Gigabits per second all through the country to provide uniform access of knowledge in different regions. Let me discuss how an educational institution has assisted the rural development process.

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Participation of universities in Rural Development

For India to be a developed nation, it is essential that there is a massive scheme for development of the rural areas, as 70% of our population lives in villages. Hence the Government has announced the introduction of a scheme called PURA i.e. Providing Urban Amenities in Rural areas. PURA model envisages habitat design to improve the quality of life in rural areas and also removes urban congestion. It is essentially conceived around four types of connectivities with the aim to speed up process of achieving total rural prosperity. Physical connectivity enables high mobility to villagers so that they can interact and use common infrastructure such as school, health centres and markets. The electronic connectivity with telephones and internet facilities bring them together and interact with anyone anywhere in the world. Knowledge connectivity will transform the rural area in education, health care, application of science for crop, water and forest and management, environment protection and cooperative product marketing. The combination of all these three connectivities provides the economic connectivity with small-scale industries, agro and food processing, warehouses, micro power plants, renewable energy farms and banks. The four connectivities will bring prosperity to the villagers and improve quality of life. Universities of Calcutta, Madras and Mumbai can adopt 20 to 30 villages located in near the metropolitan cities and create a model PURA with all the connectivities and enterprises with large scale employment generation potential.

The Universities can become facilitators of creating PURAs in different regions by nominating the support of Departments of Management Studies, Computer Science and Information Technology, Bio-technology and Biology, Energy and other related areas of specialization for planning and executing these PURA complexes in collaboration with the Government, industries and societal transformers like NGOs. Funding can come from the Government, banks, industry, NGOs and self help groups. The graduates and post-graduates of the University should become enterprise leaders and become employment generators rather than employment seekers in these rural enterprises. Now I would like to discuss a model PURA which is in operation in Tamil Nadu.

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Periyar PURA

Last year I had visited Periyar Maniammai college of Technology for Women and inaugurated a PURA Complex. I thought of sharing with you the developmental concept of a cluster of over 65 villages near Vallam, Thanjavur district of Tamilnadu which involves a population of 3 lakhs. This PURA complex has all the three connectivities - physical, electronic and knowledge - leading to economic connectivity. The centre of activity emanates from the women engineering college that provides the electronic and knowledge connectivity. I understand that now five of the Periyar PURA villages have been connected with Wi-MAX connectivity. Periyar PURA has health care centres, primary to post graduate level education and vocational training centres. This has resulted in large scale employment generation and creation of number of entrepreneurs with the active support of 850 self-help groups. Two hundreds acres of waste land has been developed into cultivable land with innovative water management schemes such as contour ponds and water sheds for storing and irrigating the fields. All the villagers are busy in either cultivation, planting Jatropha, herbal and medicinal plants, power generation using bio-mass, food processing and above all running marketing centres. This model has emanated independent of any government initiative. The committed leadership has been provided by the Engineering institution. This gives me the confidence that PURA is a realizable proposition and this movement can be multiplied by thousands of entrepreneurs, educational administrators and philanthropic institutions with the support of the government agencies.

I would like to tell you something interesting to all of you. During my visit to abroad, India and Russia have agreed to launch a youth satellite programme as collaborative venture with the universities and institutions. I would request other countries also to become partners in this programme. You may look at the whiteboard, where I have sketched the GSLV and the Youth Satellite for your reference.

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Conclusion

For realizing excellence in education, what we need is quality faculty, infrastructural facility, national and international high bandwidth connectivity, availability of knowledge sources. In addition we need a good learning environment, collaborative environment, exposure to the international best practices and constant promotion of innovation and creativity. The higher the research intensity in a University environment better will be the teaching quality. The Indo-US University collaboration should provide these features to all the constituents? colleges in different regions and become role models for the entire country in propagating, attractive and high quality virtual education. Each University, its faculty members and the students must try to say ?what they can give to other universities.? The capacity building in areas of importance to the national and international development is a primary role of the teachers. Today science and technology are directly linked to the world economic development and their sustainability is related to the applicability and relevance of education system in uplifting the people living below the poverty line and those who live in the rural and urban areas. The attitude of giving between the universities will enhance the efficiency in knowledge creation and speedy dissemination. Knowledge gets multiplied when connected and circulated. The momentum that you will be giving to the concept of Virtual University should soon engulf every university, school and research institutions and make the whole country connected by a Knowledge Grid. Finally I would request all faculty members of the participating universities, each one of them to ask themselves a question ?what I would like to be remembered for?? during the phase of my university mission.

I inaugurate the Indo-US Universities EDUSAT Network and wish the participants success in their mission of working in the cyberspace and advanced technologies for producing a visible growth in our economy in the real world. I wish you all success in your mission of promoting excellence in education and capacity building among students and finally evolving the creation of the knowledge society for the nation.

May God bless you.

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Question Answer Session with the President of India

Site: Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri

Venue: Seminar Hall with a capacity of 120

Students: Both undergraduates and post graduate students of engineering, biotechnology, bioinformatics and microbiology

Questions

1. Anup M.Sc. Biotechnology

What is the role of education in preventing the complete loss of moral and ethical values as development and technological advances progress?

Ans. In my opinion there must be a weekly moral science class for all the students in school and colleges. It is essentials for inculcating the moral and ethical values among the youth.

2. Prasida Nambisan M.Sc Bioinformatics What role does this collaboration play in reversing brain drain?

Ans. All inter university collaboration is meant to synergise the strengths of the partners. As for as brain drain is concerned India is producing over 300,000 engineers and professionals every year, apart from the science graduates. If a small percentage of them go to different countries it shows the dynamics of our society and it is a welcome sign.

3. Meera Nair B.Sc Biotechnology

What would be the encouragement at the grass root level that a life science student would receive if he/she plans to pursue a serious research work beneficial for India?

Ans: Our farmers and extension workers are extremely supportive of the research work being done by University students and faculties. They will provide all the support in their experimental work. I have personally known the support coming from the farmers in cultivation of Wheat in Bihar and Cotton in Punjab.

4.Varsha M.Sc Biotechnology

What do you think, we as students should do to make India a developed nation by 2020?

Ans: As students, all of you must excel in your studies. If you have time, on holidays and Saturdays and Sundays, you can educate five people who cannot read and write in your neighbouring villages. You may also plant five trees and nurture them.

5. Ninu Paulose M.Sc. Biotechnology What are the changes that can be made in the existing education system to realize vision 2020?

Ans: The syllabus in the higher education curriculum must be aligned to the national needs. This I have been emphasizing during my meetings with the Principals and Vice Chancellors. To a certain extent, they have already started implementing changes in the curriculum and the Project Work, undertaken by the students.

6. Harsha Baver M.Sc. Biotechnology

What more genuine evaluation procedures can you propose other than the marks based evaluation, which is not a true indication of understanding of concepts?

Ans. Independent and group real life projects can be assigned to the students which can be evaluated by external peers. This will be a true indication of the understanding of the concept and also generate confidence among the students that ?I can do it?.

7. Roshni Issac M.Sc. Biotechnology

Isn?t it high time that the bias of the reservation system was shifted from caste based to economic status based?

Ans.There is a constitutional requirement which has to be fulfilled. However, we must see that the meritorious students do not suffer due to lack of vacancies. At present, the situation in engineering admission is very good. The same situation should be realized in the case of medical admission also.

8. Vineet Nair, Third Semester, B.Tech Mechanical Engg

Today, there is a dearth of quality teachers in the county at all levels. Is it possible to remedy this situation through the use of technology?

Ans. We have some of the excellent teachers. There are many such schools across the country which has been bestowed with at least one or more very good teachers. They should develop the learning materials and make them available to every child across the country free. For this, I suggest that between the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology and the Ministry of HRD, we should identify the syllabi for each course in each class and request at least 10 teachers for every subject to develop the e-learning material to a specific format and pedagogy. We then should select the either best course material or the best combination of best of breed solution. The subjects can be made very interesting through stories, cartoons and even games. In this regard, I would like to give an example of one of the Professors of Indian origin who had revolutionized the understanding of Computer Security by children using innovative stories and games. Prof Pradeep Khosla is the Dean of the Carnegie Institute of Technology. The portal where you can find the simple way of teaching children about Information security through games is http://www.mysecurecyberspace.com/game.

9. R Shyam Shankar, Third Semester, B.Tech, Electronics Engg

Research is considered most essential for a nation's progress. Today, for most of us, several attractive career options are available and research is not a priority. Can you help us appreciate the attractiveness of research as a career option? and

Mr. Hitesh Sharma, B E IV (Electronics Engineering)

In comparison with western countries, a career as a research fellow or as a scientist is neither financially attractive nor viewed in higher esteem socially, in India. Sir, what efforts should be taken to attract brilliant minds to these areas?

Ans. This, I consider as an important area of concern of the nation and it needs the attention of the scientific community as a whole. In my view, we can initiate the following action. It is essential for the nation to assure a career for those who wish to pursue science as a mission. This will attract many students with the full support of the parents. We should work for the creation of a science cadre, with well defined growth path and attractive salaries. There should be a minimum annual intake of about 400 M.Sc and 200 Ph.Ds with assured career growth in the organisations such as ISRO, DRDO, Atomic Energy, CSIR, DST and the Universities.

Rahul R, Third Semester, B.Tech Electronics Engg

10. It is suggested that technology adoption is the solution for the ills of society. Is it fair to truly believe that technology can eradicate the widespread poverty and unemployment that continues to keep India as an underdeveloped country?

Ans. As you are aware, the first green revolution was through technology adoption. We are today self-sufficient in food and we can also export to some extent. Same is the case with white revolution. Our space technology has helped the farmers and fishermen. Today it is providing distance education. For energy independence we have to make use of nuclear power and solar energy. All these will not be possible without the use of technology. Once used it will definitely help in eradication of poverty.



Arjun Menon, Third Semester, B.Tech Electronics Engg

11. As engineers, what aspirations do you expect us to nurture about ourselves and the nation so that we can effectively contribute to your vision of India 2020?

Ans. You should all become employment generators instead of being employment seekers.

Aswathykutty.V, 1st B.A.M.S., Amrita Ayurveda Medical College

12. Like China has taken many steps to popularize their medicine in the international level & what steps can be taken to popularize Ayurveda in the international level. Many countries are not permitting our medicines only because they do not have proper knowledge. How can we develop faith in them?

Ans.We have to carry out systematic evaluation of our ayurvedic products. They have to undergo Phase I, Phase II and multi centric trials. Also, there must be standardization of products. Some of the multi centric trials may be conducted in hospitals located in foreign countries. This will generate adequate faith in our products.





Site: Symbiosis Institute of Computer, Studies and Research, Pune

Venue: Hall with 100 plus capacity. It is also beamed to another hall of 150

Students:Both post graduates and under graduates; MSc Computer Applications, Bachelor of Business Administration, Bachelor of Computer Applications

Questions

13. Neha Shrivastava, MSc (CA) II year

We are promoting Free and Open Source Software with the belief that it will help to bring in e-governance nation wide. Please guide us to take it further.

Ans. There is no relationship between open source software and e-governance. Use of open source software is economical, is easy to change and it can enable you to have your own security system. If you have these characteristics in mind you must go for open source software. 14. Ankit Nagpal, BBA (IT) II year

Why is it that the educated masses of India are becoming pragmatic and are unable to generate the patriotic feeling among themselves and be proud of India? Ans. I have met over nine hundred thousand youth during the last three years. I have not found any of our youth non patriotic. If each one of the Indian performs his tasks with commitment and sincerity I would say he or she is definitely patriotic. His action will definitely go towards the development of the nation. He does not have to constantly go on announcing that he is patriotic.

15. Somya Pande, BCA III year

The companies coming in India are mainly BPO?s or service providers. Do you think it is diverting our intellectual population towards IT and hampering development in other disciplines?

Ans.Our Indian companies have to work on knowledge products. If they start working on knowledge products it will give adequate challenge to our youth to promote their innovativeness.

16.Bhoomika Kesaria, BCA II year

Today?s education and exam system are mainly testing memory of the students. How can we change the system to promote innovation and creativity? Ans. We have to inject creativity among the students at primary level. The syllabus has to change and make the child learn by doing rather than memorizing. If we accomplish this, we would have created the constant innovative habit among the children which will enable them to face real life problem later through creative and innovative approach. Site: National Institute of Technology, Surat

Venue: Seminar Hall with a capacity of 60 students

Students:All undergraduate engineering students of electronics and computer science engineering

17. Mr. Anshuman Khandual, B E IV (Computer Engineering)

Sir, being both patriotic citizens of our country and proud human beings; in the course of our career, in case we encounter a situation when the two appear to conflict, what should we give preference to viz. to the nation or to the mankind as a whole?

Ans. If you do anything which is beneficial to the nation invariably it will be beneficial to the mankind also.

18. Mr. Anshuman Khandual, B E IV (Computer Engineering)

Sir, how do we inculcate in every student a passion for selfless excellence and compassion for the downtrodden?

Ans. There is nothing like selfless excellence. The selfishness is embedded in excellence. For example, if you are a hundred meter runner you have to beat all your competitors. Having earned a name, fame and wealth, your ability to provide help to the downtrodden with compassion is selflessness.

19. Mr. Hitesh Sharma, BE IV (Electronics Engineering)

Sir, this question has connection to the recent sad news of suicides committed at IIT, Kanpur and IIT, Bombay and to the general feeling of frustration in the youth today. Sir, as the popular saying goes and I quote: Education is something that liberates a soul unquote. Where have we gone wrong, if at all we have, in our education system, which does not prevent such sad incidences?

Ans. Education must provide the ability to face challenges with confidence. It should provide the mental strength to overcome the hurdles and problems and succeed. I am reminded of my Guru Prof Satish Dhawan?s advise ?if you do not work, no problem will occur, but if you do a mission or task definitely problems of varying magnitudes will crop up. But problems should not become the master of the individuals, individuals should become master of the problem, defeat and succeed?.

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